万能细胞有望治愈白血病艾滋病

万能细胞有望治愈白血病艾滋病
 
文章来源:浙江在线 | 时间:2009年03月26日

  美国《科学》杂志2007年底曾发表了干细胞研究领域的一项重大成果,即科学家将人体皮肤细胞改造成了几乎可以和胚胎干细胞相媲美的干细胞,从而有望避免人类胚胎干细胞研究存在的巨大伦理争议和法律难题,让干细胞研究多了一种选择。这一生命科学前沿研究新成果引起全球高度关注,被誉为有望冲击科学顶峰诺贝尔奖。近日,参与这项研究的美国威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校研究小组领衔人员、华人女科学家俞君英返回故乡——浙江诸暨,看望阔别12年的父母亲人,并抽出宝贵时间拜会老师校友,介绍科研进展,勉励母校学生。记者借此机会进行采访,瞥见了干细胞研究领域的一番天地,更见识了女科学家的不凡精神。

做科学研究要有平常心

"我觉得得不得奖并不重要,关键是能造福他人。"当记者祝贺俞君英的科研成就时,她回答得很朴实。她说,当这一成果发表时,全球多家权威媒体报道,称此项研究有可能得诺贝尔奖,对此,她当时就以很平常的态度来对待。

俞君英介绍,她现在依旧在实验室专门研究"万能细胞"的实际应用。"其实,做科学真的很辛苦,除了要有智力、毅力、耐力和一定的承受能力,最重要的是要有一颗平常心。因为,就科学实验而言,过程远比结果重要,科学实验总是面临着这样的境地:不断实验,不断失败,不断重复,许多时候,失败的几率在99%以上,成功的几率在1%以下。但其实,成功就是靠一次次的失败来推动的。所以,我不会因为获奖觉得自己有多成功,也不会因为不获奖而觉得失败了。科学研究的本意是通过自己的研究,对人类有益。"俞君英诠释她的"科学观"。

至今单身的俞君英称,回到亲人身边,看到挂念已久的父母,这真的是太好了。这次相聚会让她在日后更专注于研究。

有望治疗艾滋病白血病

俞君英表示将继续完善人类干细胞改组的方法,最近几年的工作目标是希望通过自己的努力早日将万能细胞应用于疾病治疗,借助细胞移植的手段,攻克心脏病、脊椎损伤等器官缺损疾病的治疗难关。

胚胎干细胞研究成为当今的一股科研热潮,因为其巨大的实用价值,各国科学家竞相角逐,而俞君英领衔的研究小组通过向皮肤细胞植入一组4个基因,成功培育出具备胚胎干细胞功能的干细胞。俞君英介绍,把这些"点石成金"般的关键基因植入皮肤细胞后,皮肤细胞经过"直接基因重组",就可以具备胚胎干细胞功能。

俞君英又通俗地解释了一下"万能细胞"的研究,人体上任何一部分的细胞通过研究都能转化成干细胞,而干细胞又能转化成任何一个部分的细胞。研究的应用非常广泛,比如说对血液干细胞的研究,如果一系列应用难关都能攻克,那艾滋病和白血病等就不再会是绝症了。

5~10年后产生实际应用

目前,利用基因改造培育干细胞,从技术本身来看已经成熟,但俞君英说,这一技术在医学领域的应用还处于起步阶段,现在讨论利用这些干细胞培育人体器官并进行移植实在还为时过早。利用基因改造培育干细胞技术有极大的发展潜力,除皮肤细胞外,科学家还可以选择人体其他的组织细胞进行改造,而目前他们之所以选择皮肤细胞,是因为皮肤细胞易获取,易培育。

对于成果,她一直称"我"只是"解决了自己希望解决的问题"。她说:"目前,虽然我们对万能细胞的研究理论上已经取得了突破,但真正应用到临床上还有许多难关,这也是下一阶段我工作的主要方向。我个人预测我们的研究会在5~10年以后有一些简单的实际应用。"

俞君英还透露了自己的另一大研究目标:通过干细胞研究而更深层次地去研究人类老化问题,"我很希望我的研究以后能对人类延缓衰老起巨大作用。"

不排除回国作研究的可能

2008年,俞君英来国内讲学时,她曾经考察了国内一些研究环境,为此,记者也问了一个读者感兴趣的问题:"是否考虑回国工作?"

她很坦率地说,不排除回国的可能,但目前暂不考虑,因为科学研究的延续性很重要。她说:"去年,我参观了国内的几个实验室,确实有些人为了真正发展中国科研工作做了很多事情。可也发现几大难题。单是实验所需的器材、试剂,产地大多在国外,如果在国内想购买,就必须通过申报、批复等多重工序。大家都知道,科学实验的时间太宝贵了。"

不太引人注目的俞君英总是温和地坚持着自己的选择。她刚到美国时,生物科学专业并不太吃香,很多同学转学计算机,随后又有同学转学金融,或者寻找大公司就业,像俞君英这样能坚持下来的人并不多。此次回乡,许多家长也问俞君英,该如何帮助孩子选择专业,让孩子成才,俞君英建议:一个人只要去做他自己真正有兴趣的事情,就能坚持下去,而只要能坚持下去,也一定会有不错的结果。

俞君英:1974年生于诸暨市阮市镇檀溪村一个普通农家,曾就读于朱家站初中、湄池中学,1997年从北京大学毕业后赴美留学,并获得博士学位,2003年起在美国威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校汤姆森实验室工作,开始干细胞研究。2007年11月20日,她与人合作在世界顶尖学术刊物《科学》杂志上发表论文,宣布成功把人体皮肤细胞改造成类似胚胎干细胞的新型"万能细胞"。这项研究被称为是一项里程碑式的重大突破,为干细胞研究在医学领域的广泛应用开辟了道路。

胚胎干细胞:胚胎干细胞被称为"万能细胞",它可以分化出皮肤细胞等各种组织细胞。但人类胚胎干细胞研究存在巨大的伦理争议,在很多国家也被法律禁止。而且从科研角度来看,涉及人类胚胎干细胞的克隆技术操作难度非常大,卵子的来源也是个问题。相比之下,利用基因技术"仿制"胚胎干细胞,技术操作上相对容易,成本也会低得多。

Universal is expected to cure leukemia cells in AIDS
 
Source: Zhejiang Online | Time: March 26, 2009
The United States "Science" magazine published by the end of 2007 had been the field of stem cell research a major achievement, that is, scientists will transform human skin cells can become almost comparable to embryonic stem cells, stem cells, which is expected to avoid the human embryonic stem cell research exist huge ethical controversy and legal problems, so that stem cell research more than one option. This cutting-edge life science research results arising from the new global attention as the expected impact of science and the Nobel Prize peak. Recently, the United States to participate in this study University of Wisconsin-Madison Group headed staff, Yu-Jun-ying of Chinese female scientists back home - Zhejiang Zhuji, called the 12-year absence, parents, and teachers taking the time to call alumni, introduce research progress, encouraged the students to his alma mater. Reporter to take this opportunity to conduct an interview, catch a glimpse of the field of stem cell research made heaven and earth, but also witnessed the extraordinary spirit of female scientists.

To do scientific research must be unbiased

"I think not winning is not important, the key is to the benefit of others." When a reporter congratulated Yu-Jun-British scientific research achievements, she replied very simple. She said that when the results were delivered, more than the authority of the global media, said the study has probably the Nobel Prize, for which she was on the very common attitude.

Yu-Jun-ying introduction, she is now still in the laboratory specializes in "universal cell" of the practical application. "In fact, really hard to do science, we must have intelligence, perseverance, endurance and affordability must, above all to have an unbiased view. Because, in terms of scientific experiments on the process than the results of important scientific experiments always faced with this dilemma: continue to experiment and continually failed to repeat, very often, when the probability of failure at more than 99% chance of success at less than 1%. But in fact, success is relying on the failure of a meeting to promote the. So, I am not winning because feels how successful, it would not because they do not feel that winning and failed. are intended for scientific research through their own research, beneficial to humanity. "Yu-Jun-British interpretation of her" scientific concept. "

So far single Yu-Jun-ying said that to return to their loved ones around to see the thinking of the long-Parent, which are very good true. The meet will give her more focus on in future research.

Leukemia is expected to treat AIDS

Yu-Jun-ying said it would continue to improve the human stem cells, the reorganization of the method, in recent years the work of the target is to have through their own efforts at an early date will be omnipotent cells used in disease treatment, with a means of cell transplantation, overcome heart disease, spinal injuries, defects and other organ diseases difficulties .

Embryonic stem cell research has become today a scientific boom, because of its immense practical value, the scientists competing race, and Yu-Jun-British-led Group to the skin cells into a group of four genes that produce graduates with strong success of embryonic stem cells function in stem cells . Yu-Jun-ying introduction to these "golden touch" as the key gene implanted in the skin cells, skin cells through "direct genetic recombination", you can have the embryonic stem cell function.

Yu-Jun-ying also popular interpretation of the "universal cell" research, on any part of the body cells can, through research into stem cells, while stem cells can transform into any one part of the cell. Research on the application of a very wide range, for example, blood stem cell research, if a range of applications can overcome difficulties, and that AIDS and leukemia and so on will no longer be a terminal illness.

5 ~ 10 years after the practical application of

At present, the use of genetically modified stem cells cultivated from the technology itself has matured, but Yu-Jun-ying said that this technology in the medical field is still in its initial stage, are now discussing the use of these stem cells and transplantation of human organs is still too early to . Foster the use of genetically modified stem cell technology has great potential for development, with the exception of skin cells, scientists can also select other organizations in human cell transformation, and they chose the skin cells, because skin cells are easy to access, easy to cultivate.

For the outcome, she has been referred to as the "me" only "want to solve their own problems." She said: "At present, although we theoretically omnipotent cell research breakthrough has been made, but really have applied to the clinical lot of difficulties, this is the next stage of the main direction of my job. My personal prediction study in the U.S. 5 ~ 10 years later there is some simple practical application. "

Yu-Jun-ying also revealed another major study of its own objectives: the adoption of stem cell research and to study the deeper questions of human aging, "I very much hope that it will be my study of human aging from a huge role."

Does not exclude the possibility of return for research

2008, Yu-Jun-ying to the domestic lectures, she once visited a number of domestic research environment, to that end, a reporter also ask questions of interest to readers: "Do you consider the return to work?"

She was, frankly, do not rule out the possible return, but will not consider, because the continuity of scientific research is very important. She said: "Last year, I visited the home of some laboratories, a fact that some people in order to really develop China's scientific research work to do a lot of things. Can be also found several major problems. Single experiment are the necessary equipment, reagents, producing mostly at abroad, if want to buy at home, it is necessary to the adoption of a declaration approved multiple processes. we all know, the scientific experiments of the time is too valuable. "

Yu-Jun-ying not always eye-catching gently insist their selection. She first came to the United States, the biological sciences major and less popular, a lot of Student Transfer computer, then transfer to another school classmate and finance, or large companies looking for employment, such as Yu-Jun-British insist that this will not be many people down. The home, many parents also ask Yu-Jun-ying, how to help their children select the major, let Chengcai Children, Yu-Jun-British proposals: a person who has only himself to do things really are interested, you can persevere, and continue as long as they can, and must there will be a good result.

Yu-Jun-ying: Born in 1974, Zhuji City Nguyen Tan-Chi village town an ordinary farmer, he studied at the middle school Zhu Station, mae school pool in 1997 after graduating from Beijing University in the United States to study, and obtained a doctorate in 2003 from the United States at the University of Wisconsin Thomson-Madison laboratory work, begin stem cell research. November 20, 2007, she co-operation with the people at the world's top academic journal "Science" magazine published thesis, announced the success of the human skin cells into embryonic stem cells similar to the new "universal cell." The study was described as a landmark breakthrough for stem cell research in the medical field has paved the way widely used.

Embryonic stem cells: embryonic stem cells known as the "universal cell", which can be differentiated skin cells and other tissue cells. But human embryonic stem cell research exist enormous ethical controversy, in many countries has also been prohibited by law. Moreover, from a scientific point of view, involving human embryonic stem cell cloning technology to operate very difficult, the source of eggs is also a problem. In contrast, the use of gene technology "imitation" embryonic stem cells, technology is relatively easy to operate on, the cost will be much lower.

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