美国职业新闻记者协会伦理规约

张祖乔 原创 | 2009-10-16 09:48 | 收藏 | 投票
关键字:伦理 管理 新闻记者 规约 

美国职业新闻记者协会伦理规约

  美国职业记者协会(Society of Professional Journalists——SPJ)于1926年正式通过第一个伦理规范,主要借用了美国报纸编辑协会1923年的“新闻规约”。1973年SPJ制订了自己的规范,并在1984年、1987年两次重新做过修订,1996年9月,又做了最近的一次修订。

伦理规约

美·职业新闻记者协会1996年通过

前言

职业新闻记者协会的成员相信,公众启蒙是正义的前奏和民主的基础。新闻记者的责任是探究事实真相以及就事件和议题提供公正而全面的报道,进而实现上述目标。来自所有媒体和专业的有良知的记者努力全面而诚实地为公众利益服务。职业廉正是新闻记者可信度的基石。

探究与报道事实真相

在采集、报道和解释信息时,新闻记者应该诚实、公正而勇敢。新闻记者应该:

·根据所有的消息来源来检验信息的准确性,以谨慎行事来避免因疏忽而导致的差错。绝对不允许蓄意的歪曲。

·努力找到新闻报道对象,向他们提供回应对其不正当行为的指陈的机会。

·只要有可能就交代消息来源的身份。公众有权就消息来源的可靠性获得尽可能多的信息。

·在允诺匿名之前,一律要质疑消息来源的动机。说明为获取信息而做出任何承诺的附带条件。信守诺言。

·防止标题,新闻引子和宣传材料、图片、录像、录音、图表、同期声、引语失实。它们不能背离语境而过于简化或夸大事件。

·杜绝扭曲新闻图片或录像的内容。为了提高技术清晰度而强华形象是允许的。使用蒙太奇或图片说明需要注明。

·不得重现或导演新闻事件,以避免误导。如果为了讲述故事而有必要重现,必须加以说明。

·避免暗中进行的或其他鬼鬼祟祟的信息采集方式,除非传统的公开方法不能产生对公众来说至关重要的信息。对这些方式的运用应当作为报道的一部分加以解释。

·杜绝抄袭剽窃。

·大胆地讲述关于人类经验的多样性和重要性的故事,即便这种做法不受欢迎。

·审视自身的文化价值观,避免将这些价值观强加于人。

·避免就种族、性别、年龄、宗教、族裔、地理、性取向、残障、体貌或社会地位形成刻板成见。

·支持观点的公开交流,即便他们发现的观点是相互抵触的。

·给无发言权者以发言权;官方和非官方的消息来源具有同等效用。

·区分观点鼓吹与新闻报道。分析语评论应该标明出处,以避免歪曲事实或语境。

·区分新闻与广告,警惕模糊二者界限的混合物。

·认识到以下特殊责任:确保公众事物公开处理、政府记录公开审查。

将伤害最小化

有道德的新闻记者将消息来源、报道对象和同事奉为值得尊敬的人。新闻记者应该:

·对那些可能受到新闻报道负面影响的人表示同情。在对待儿童和无经验的消息来源或报道对象时,具有特殊的敏感性。

·在寻求和使用那些遭到悲剧或哀痛打击的人的访问记和照片时谨慎行事。

·认识到采集和报道信息可能会造成的伤害和不适。追寻新闻不是傲慢无礼的许可证。

·认识到与公共官员和其他努力寻求权力、影响力或注意力的人相比,私人有更大的权利控制关于自身的信息。只有压倒一切的公共需要才能证明侵犯个人隐私的正当性。

·表现良好的品味。避免迎合耸人听闻的猎奇癖。

·在交代青少年犯罪嫌疑人或性犯罪受害者的身份时谨慎从事。

·在正式发出指控之前,明智地使用犯罪嫌疑人这一称谓。

·在犯罪嫌疑人的公正审判权与公众的被告知权之间进行平衡。

独立行事

除了公众的知情权以外,新闻记者应不对任何利益负有责任。新闻记者应该:

·避免利益冲突,无论这种冲突是真实的或是感知的。

·摆脱各种可能危及诚实或损害可信度的社团或活动。

·拒绝礼品、优惠、酬金、免费旅行和特殊待遇,回避在社区组织中的第二职业、政治涉入、公职和服务,如果它们危及新闻记者的诚实的话。

·披露不可避免的冲突。

·警觉而勇敢地向权势者问责。拒绝偏袒广告商和特殊利益集团,地址他们影响新闻报道的压力。

·警惕那些为获得好处或金钱而提供信息的消息来源;避免出价购买新闻。

具有责任心

新闻记者要对他们的读者、听众、观众以及其他人负责。新闻记者应该:

·澄清与解释新闻报道,与公众就新闻记者的行为展开对话。

·鼓励公众诉说对新闻媒体的不满。

·承认错误,并及时改正。

·揭露新闻记者和新闻媒体不合伦理的行为。

·既以高标准要求别人,也以同样的高标准要求自己。

Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics

Preamble

Members of the Society of Professional Journalists (SPJ) believe that public enlightenment is the forerunner of justice and the foundation of democracy. The duty of the journalist is to further those ends by seeking truth and providing a fair and comprehensive account of events and issues. Conscientious journalists from all media and specialties strive to serve the public with thoroughness and honesty. Professional integrity is the cornerstone of a journalist's credibility. Members of the Society share a dedication to ethical behavior and adopt this code to declare the Society's principles and standards of practice.

Seek Truth and Report It

Journalists should be honest, fair and courageous in gathering, reporting and interpreting information.

Journalists should:

  • Test the accuracy of information from all sources and exercise care to avoid inadvertent error. Deliberate distortion is never permissible.
  • Diligently seek out subjects of news stories to give them the opportunity to respond to allegations of wrongdoing.
  • Identify sources whenever feasible. The public is entitled to as much information as possible on sources' reliability.
  • Always question sources' motives before promising anonymity. Clarify conditions attached to any promise made in exchange for information. Keep promises.
  • Make certain that headlines, news teases and promotional material, photos, video, audio, graphics, sound bites and quotations do not misrepresent. They should not oversimplify or highlight incidents out of context.
  • Never distort the content of news photos or video. Image enhancement for technical clarity is always permissible. Label montages and photo illustrations.
  • Avoid misleading re-enactments or staged news events. If re-enactment is necessary to tell a story, label it.
  • Avoid undercover or other surreptitious methods of gathering information except when traditional open methods will not yield information vital to the public. Use of such methods should be explained as part of the story
  • Never plagiarize.
  • Tell the story of the diversity and magnitude of the human experience boldly, even when it is unpopular to do so.
  • Examine their own cultural values and avoid imposing those values on others.
  • Avoid stereotyping by race, gender, age, religion, ethnicity, geography, sexual orientation, disability, physical appearance or social status.
  • Support the open exchange of views, even views they find repugnant.
  • Give voice to the voiceless; official and unofficial sources of information can be equally valid.
  • Distinguish between advocacy and news reporting. Analysis and commentary should be labeled and not misrepresent fact or context.
  • Distinguish news from advertising and shun hybrids that blur the lines between the two.
  • Recognize a special obligation to ensure that the public's business is conducted in the open and that government records are open to inspection.

 

Minimize Harm

Ethical journalists treat sources, subjects and colleagues as human beings deserving of respect.

Journalists should:

  • Show compassion for those who may be affected adversely by news coverage. Use special sensitivity when dealing with children and inexperienced sources or subjects.
  • Be sensitive when seeking or using interviews or photographs of those affected by tragedy or grief.
  • Recognize that gathering and reporting information may cause harm or discomfort. Pursuit of the news is not a license for arrogance.
  • Recognize that private people have a greater right to control information about themselves than do public officials and others who seek power, influence or attention. Only an overriding public need can justify intrusion into anyone's privacy.
  • Show good taste. Avoid pandering to lurid curiosity.
  • Be cautious about identifying juvenile suspects or victims of sex crimes.
  • Be judicious about naming criminal suspects before the formal filing of charges.
  • Balance a criminal suspect's fair trial rights with the public's right to be informed.

 

Act Independently

Journalists should be free of obligation to any interest other than the public's right to know.

Journalists should:

  • Avoid conflicts of interest, real or perceived.
  • Remain free of associations and activities that may compromise integrity or damage credibility.
  • Refuse gifts, favors, fees, free travel and special treatment, and shun secondary employment, political involvement, public office and service in community organizations if they compromise journalistic integrity.
  • Disclose unavoidable conflicts.
  • Be vigilant and courageous about holding those with power accountable.
  • Deny favored treatment to advertisers and special interests and resist their pressure to influence news coverage.
  • Be wary of sources offering information for favors or money; avoid bidding for news.

 

Be Accountable

Journalists are accountable to their readers, listeners, viewers and each other.

Journalists should:

  • Clarify and explain news coverage and invite dialogue with the public over journalistic conduct.
  • Encourage the public to voice grievances against the news media.
  • Admit mistakes and correct them promptly.
  • Expose unethical practices of journalists and the news media.
  • Abide by the same high standards to which they hold others.

 


The SPJ Code of Ethics is voluntarily embraced by thousands of writers, editors and other news professionals. Sigma Delta Chi's first Code of Ethics was borrowed from the American Society of Newspaper Editors in 1926. In 1973, Sigma Delta Chi wrote its own code, which was revised in 1984, 1987 and 1996. The present version of the code was adopted by the 1996 SPJ National Convention, after months of study and debate among the Society's members.


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