艾滋病的治疗方法与药物新解

刘君 原创 | 2009-03-11 11:36 | 收藏 | 投票

艾滋病的治疗方法与药物新解

 

爱滋病的治疗尚无满意的方法,治疗药物可包括以下几个方面:
  治疗爱滋病的方法一、抗hiv药物叠氮胸苷:是逆转录酶抑制剂,主要作用于hiv复制,本药已经美国食品及药物管理局首先批准用于临床。它可提高cd4细胞数,减缓疾病的进程,延长患者的存活,减少条件性感染,降低死亡率。主要的副作用是骨髓抑制、全血细胞减少而致继发感染加重,此外还能引起药物热、皮疹等。
  双脱氧肌苷:是逆转录酶抑制剂,作用与叠氮胸苷相同,其副作用包括周围神经病、胰腺炎及肾脏损害,因此治疗前必须检查有关项目。
  双脱氧胞苷:也是一种逆转录酶抑制剂,可使患者血清p24抗原减少,cd4细胞短暂升高,副作用与剂量相关,主要有皮疹、口炎、周围神经病等。
  同他天定:是一种新的逆转录酶抑制剂,作用与双脱氧胞苷相似,能增加cd4细胞数。
  治疗爱滋病的方法二、中药治疗
  可用紫花地丁、丹参、人参、黄芪、熟地等。
  治疗爱滋病的方法三、免疫调节剂干扰素a:具有抗病毒复制和免疫调节作用,几种干扰素一a干扰素作用最强
  白细胞介素
  粒细胞-巨嗜细胞集落刺激因子,可使外周血中粒细胞和单核细胞数增加,改善肌体防御能力,减少条件性感染。
  鸡尾酒疗法简介:纽约艾伦?戴蒙德艾滋病研究中心主持艾滋病研究工作的何大一发明了治疗艾滋病的着名的“鸡尾酒疗法”,该疗法把蛋白酶抑制剂与多种抗病毒的药物混合使用,从而使艾滋病得到有效的控制。
  鸡尾酒疗法的原理是,假使艾滋病人只服用一种治疗药物,艾滋病毒终究会发展出抵抗药效的能力,而如果病人服用两种药物,即使病毒发展出对其中一种药物的抵抗能力,也无法同时兼具对另一种药物的防御能力。
  接受这种疗法的病人如果在感染的最初几个月同时服用三种药物,最能有效地抑制病毒的复制扩散。例如接受azt、3tc和蛋白酶抑制剂3种药物混合疗法,其中azt、和3tc两种药物能够初步中断病毒的繁衍,而蛋白酶抑制剂能完全阻断病毒的复制扩散。
  不过,这种混合多项药物疗法价格非常高昂,每年约需花费两万美元,而新近研究成功的第三种药物蛋白酶抑制则仍供不应求,虽然这种疗法对85%艾滋病人产生显着的疗效,仍有15%的病人情况丝毫没有改善,此外,接受这种疗法的病人,初斯会出现许多药物副作用引发的症状,例如严重腹泻、腹部痉挛和贫血等现象,某些药物必须要在饭后服用,其他的则又应空腹时服用,对于病人能否持之以恒并且正确服药,构成相当大的考验。

       自从人们向艾滋病挑战的第一天,就想征服它。在十几年与艾滋病的斗争中,人们已经积累了相当的经验,知道了预防艾滋病病毒传播的有效办法,而且研制出了一些能够有效地抑制艾滋病病毒在体内复制的药物,这些药物已能在很大程度上缓解艾滋病病人的症状,延长病人的生命和提高其生活质量。
  艾滋病治疗的常用药物 (1)抗病毒药物。这些药物能够有效抑制艾滋病病毒在体内的繁殖,但并不能彻底杀灭人体内的病毒。有些药物长时间使用还可以使病毒产生耐药性,大大抵消了其治疗效果。现已有17种药物通过了美国 fda许可用于治疗艾滋病病毒/aids。在我国也可以买到部分主要药品。药物可分为三类,核苷类逆转录酶抑制剂,如双肽芝(azt+3tc)、赛瑞特(d4t)、立妥威(ddi)等。非核苷类逆转录酶抑制剂,如施多宁(stocrin)、维乐命(niverapine)等。蛋白酶抑制剂,如佳息患(indinavir)等。前二种药物作用于艾滋病病毒复制的早期,抑制逆转录酶;后一类作用于艾滋病病毒复制的后期,抑制另外一种重要的酶(蛋白酶)活性。但以上药物均系国外生产。
  1995年,美籍华裔科学家何大一博士首先应用一种蛋白酶抑制剂加两种核苷类逆转录酶抑制剂治疗感染者和病人,取得了革命性的进展。此种药物具有强大的抗病毒作用,经使用后可在血浆中检测不到病毒,并可长期维持这一疗效。另外,它还可以使被艾滋病病毒破坏的人类免疫功能获得恢复或部分恢复。这种联合用药的方法,被称之为“鸡尾酒疗法”,学术界称为高效抗逆转录病毒疗法(haart)。据美国研究,1995年底至1997年,经过采用harrt治疗后,三种艾滋病主要的机会性感染,巨细胞病毒(cmv)感染、肺卡氏肺囊虫肺炎(pcp)、鸟分枝杆菌(mac)的发病率下降了60%~80%。因为艾滋病相关疾病而住院的人数下降了60~80%,死亡率下降了44%。自1999年起,由中国疾病预防控制中心性病艾滋病中心和北京地坛医院合作率先在我国开展了这方面的工作,证明这种疗法对中国的艾滋病病毒感染者和病人可以取得同样的效果。
  另外,进行抗病毒治疗不是任何时候都适合的,要选择适当的时机。我们已经知道,感染艾滋病病毒后,会经历急性感染期、无症状期、持续性淋巴结肿大期和症状期,即艾滋病四个时期。一般的治疗应选择无症状期的中后期。因此,一定要在有经验的医生指导下确定什么时间开始治疗。
  艾滋病治疗的常用药物 (2)其他类药物。其他免疫调节药物有干扰素、白细胞介素-ⅱ和丙种球蛋白等,都具有抗病毒、抗细菌感染和增强免疫调节作用。其中白细胞介素-ⅱ还可使患者淋巴细胞数增加,改善其免疫功能。
  艾滋病治疗的常用药物 ---我国试用中医中药治疗艾滋病也有着较好的前景。如香茹多糖、丹参、黄芪和甘草甜素等亦有调整免疫功能的作用。目前有些研究工作已发现某些中药或其成份在体外实验能抑制艾滋病病毒,但尚在积极开发研制中,希望能早日有治疗艾滋病的中药面世。
  各种感染合并症的治疗如口腔念珠菌感染、其它细菌性感染、肺结核、卡氏肺囊虫肺炎、肿瘤等,均可遵医嘱对症用常规药物治疗。
  接受治疗要到定点医院,经检查后制定出系统的治疗方案。千万不要轻信江湖游医和所谓的“祖传秘方”。
  迄今为止,世界上还没有研制出能彻底治愈艾滋病的药物和有效预防感染艾滋病病毒的疫苗。但是,艾滋病的治疗药物正在取得进展,艾滋病疫苗也有所突破。总之,我们有理由相信,经过艰苦的努力,人类一定会战胜艾滋病。

       康生丹颗粒是经陕西省食品药品检验所、陕西省疾病预防控制中心成份测定,西安交通大学医学院免疫与病原生物学系免疫抑制模型实验证实能改善免疫器官的功能,使脾脏、胸腺明显增重,促进免疫抑制小鼠T淋巴细胞的增殖功能,使外周血细胞数尤其是有核细胞数量得到明显改善. T细胞释放淋巴因子,具备细胞毒性,与靶细胞特异性结合,破坏靶细胞膜,直接杀伤靶细胞不产生抗体,使免疫效应扩大和增强。所以康生丹颗粒的免疫作用是通过细胞免疫来直接完成免疫应答而诱导恢复并激活免疫缺陷与抑制的。康生丹颗粒可抑制血清中脂类的氧化,抑制过氧化脂质的生成,并降低血中胆固醇和甘油三酯的含量;能通过自身调节增加SOD(超氧化物歧化酶)的含量,降低过氧化脂质,清除自由基,减轻自由基的损伤作用;对X射线具有防护作用,对肿瘤病人放疗、化疗引起的副作用有很好的抵抗作用,还可加强人体的免疫力;具有抗血栓作用;有明显抑制肿瘤的增长,对肿瘤细胞的DNA合成和细胞转移有抑制作用,能直接杀伤肿瘤细胞,破坏其表面结构和功能,特别对人类白血病细胞DNA的合成有很强的抑制作用,抗癌作用受到了人们的重视;研究表明对人类艾滋病病毒的感染和病毒细胞的活性都具有直接抑制作用,对AIDS的治疗和预防非常有用;还对疱疹性口唇炎和口腔溃疡效果显著,具有广谱抗病毒的能力。

 

 

  

  

  

Kang Sheng Dan particles are in Shaanxi Province by the Food and Drug Inspection, the Shaanxi Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention measured ingredients, Xi'an Jiaotong University School of Medicine Department of Biology and pathogenic immune immunosuppression model experiment proved to be to improve the function of immune organs, so that the spleen, thymus significantly by weight, the promotion of immune suppression of the proliferation of mouse T lymphocyte function in peripheral blood cell count, especially the number of nucleated cells has been significantly improved. T cells release lymphokines with cell toxicity, with the target cell-specific combination of target cell membrane damage, direct anti-target cell does not produce antibodies, so that to expand and enhance immune response. Dan Kang Sheng therefore the immune role of particles through the "cellular immunity" to direct the completion of the restoration of the immune response and induction and activation and inhibition of immune deficiency. Kang Sheng Dan particles can inhibit the oxidation of serum lipids, inhibit the generation of lipid peroxidation and reduce serum cholesterol and triglyceride levels; through self-regulation to increase SOD (superoxide dismutase) content, lower lipid peroxidation, free radical scavenging, reducing the role of free radical damage; of X-ray has a protective role of the Cancer Patient radiotherapy, chemotherapy-induced side effects have a very good resistance, but also to strengthen the body's immune system; with anti-thrombosis effect; have significantly inhibited tumor growth of tumor cells to DNA synthesis and cell transfer inhibition has direct anti-tumor cells, destruction of its surface structure and function, in particular, on human leukemia cell DNA synthesis has a strong inhibitory effect, anti-cancer role of people's attention; study of human HIV infection and virus cells have direct inhibitory effect on the treatment and prevention of AIDS was very useful; also herpetic inflammation lips and oral ulcers significantly with broad-spectrum anti-viral capabilities.
AIDS treatment methods and new solutions of drugs



AIDS Treatment There is no satisfactory method of treatment may include the following aspects:
One method of treatment of AIDS, anti-hiv drugs AZT: are reverse transcriptase inhibitors, a major role in the hiv replication, this drug has been the United States Food and Drug Administration first approved for clinical. It can improve CD4 cell count and slow down the disease process and prolong the survival of patients, reduce the conditions of infection, reduce mortality. The main side effects are bone marrow suppression, pancytopenia due to secondary infection increase, in addition to the drug can cause fever, skin rash.
Dideoxy Inosine: are reverse transcriptase inhibitors, the role and the same AZT, and its side effects include peripheral neuropathy, pancreatitis and kidney damage, it must be examined before treatment of the project.
Two-deoxycytidine: a reverse transcriptase inhibitor, can reduce serum p24 antigen, cd4 cells increased short-term side effects and dose-related, mainly rash, stomatitis, peripheral neuropathy, such as.
Heaven with Him: Yes, a new reverse transcriptase inhibitors, and dual role of deoxycytidine similar, can increase the CD4 cell count.
Treatment of AIDS II, Chinese medicine treatment
Viola yedoensis Makino available, red sage root, ginseng, astragalus, etc. Moreover.
Three methods of treatment of AIDS, the immune modulator interferon-a: with anti-viral replication and immune regulatory role, several interferon role of the strongest one a interferon
IL -
Granulocyte - macrophages colony-stimulating factor, allows the peripheral blood neutrophil and monocyte cell count to increase and improve the defense capabilities of the body, reduce the conditions of infection.
Cocktail Profile: New York, Alan? Diamond AIDS Research Center, presided over the work of David Ho, AIDS researchers have invented a cure for AIDS were a "cocktail" therapy to the protease inhibitor with a wide variety of anti-viral drug mixture, thereby so that the effective control of AIDS.
Cocktail on the principle that if people only take an AIDS treatment, HIV will eventually develop the capacity of the resistance effect, and if the patient taking the two drugs, even if the virus develop a one of a drug resistance, but also can not be simultaneously both a medicine of defense capability.
Accept this kind of therapy if patients infected at the first few months of taking three drugs at the same time, the most effective in inhibiting the proliferation of viral replication. Such as acceptance of azt, 3tc and protease inhibitors three kinds of drug combination therapy, one of azt, and two drugs 3TC initial disruption of the virus can multiply, and protease inhibitors can completely block the spread of viral replication.
However, such a mixed number of drug therapy prices very high, cost about 20,000 U.S. dollars each year, and recently a third successful research inhibitor drugs are still in short supply, although this treatment is 85 percent of AIDS patients have a significant effect , there are still 15% of patients without any improvement, in addition, the acceptance of such therapy in patients, the beginning of Sri Lanka will appear much drug side-effects caused by symptoms such as severe diarrhea, abdominal cramps and anemia and other phenomena, some drugs must be in the rice After using it, others should also be taken when fasting, the sick can persevere and correct medication, constitute a considerable challenge.

       Challenges people to AIDS since the first day, wanted to conquer it. At ten years the fight against AIDS, people have accumulated considerable experience, know the prevention of HIV transmission and effective approach, and developed a number of be able to effectively inhibit HIV replication in the body of drugs, these drugs have been able to at a large extent, to alleviate the symptoms of AIDS patients and prolong the patient's life and improve their quality of life.
AIDS treatment commonly used drugs (1) anti-viral drugs. These drugs can effectively inhibit HIV reproduction in the body, but people should not completely kill the virus. Prolonged use of certain drugs can also make the virus resistance, more than offset the effect of their treatment. Now has 17 kinds of drugs through the FDA permit the United States for the treatment of HIV / aids. At our country can also buy some of the major drugs. Drugs can be divided into three categories, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as double peptide-zhi (azt +3 tc), race Reiter (d4t), legislation duly Granville (ddi) and so on. Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, such as many Nanjing Shi (stocrin), Victoria Le fate (niverapine) and so on. Protease inhibitors, such as good interest rate risk (indinavir) and so on. The former two kinds of drugs in early HIV replication, reverse transcriptase inhibitor; role in the latter category of late HIV replication, inhibition of another important enzyme (protease) activity. However, these drugs were produced abroad.
In 1995, Chinese-American scientist Dr David Ho, the first application of a protease inhibitor plus two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor treatment of infected people and patients, have made revolutionary progress. Such a powerful antiviral drugs, with use of plasma can be detected at less than viruses, and the long-term maintenance of this effect. In addition, it can be the destruction of human HIV immune function was restored or partially restored. This combination of methods, known as "cocktail therapy", the academic community known as highly active antiretroviral therapy (haart). According to the United States study, by the end of 1995 to 1997, through the use of harrt after treatment, three major AIDS opportunistic infections, cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection, pulmonary Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (pcp), Mycobacterium avium (mac ) the incidence rate decreased by 60% ~ 80%. AIDS-related diseases because the number of hospitalization decreased by 60 ~ 80%, mortality decreased by 44%. Since 1999, by the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention of STD and AIDS Center and the Beijing Ditan Hospital has taken the lead in our country carried out work in this area, prove that this treatment of China's HIV-infected persons and patients can obtain the same result.
In addition, anti-retroviral therapy is not suitable at all times, we must select the right time. We already know that HIV infection will experience acute infection period, asymptomatic period, continuous period and symptoms of swollen lymph nodes, that is four times of AIDS. Choice of therapy should be generally asymptomatic in the late period. Therefore, we must have at under the guidance of experienced doctors to determine what time to begin treatment.
AIDS treatment commonly used drugs (2) other types of drugs. Other immunomodulatory drugs interferon and interleukin-- ⅱ and gamma globulin, etc., all have anti-virus, anti-bacterial infections and enhance the role of immune regulation. One of IL - ⅱ also enable an increase of lymphocytes in patients with and improve their immune function.
AIDS treatment drugs commonly used in China --- Chinese medicine treatment of AIDS trial also have better prospects.香茹such as polysaccharides, salvia, astragalus and glycyrrhizin would also adjust the role of immune function. At present, some research has found that certain Chinese medicine and its components in vitro can inhibit the AIDS virus, but is still actively developed, the hope that agreement can soon have the medicine available to treat AIDS.
Infection in the treatment of various complications such as oral candidiasis infections, other bacterial infections, tuberculosis, pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, tumor, etc., can be prescribed symptomatic treatment with conventional drugs.
For treatment to hospitals, after inspection system to develop treatment programs. Do not rely on the political arena游医and the so-called "secret."
So far, the world has not yet developed AIDS can be cured completely effective in preventing drug and HIV vaccines. However, AIDS drugs are making progress, AIDS vaccine breakthrough. In short, we have reason to believe that, through hard work, humanity will fight against AIDS.
个人简介
协和专家门诊部艾滋病治疗中心主任、教授、专家,中医药疑难病专治网站长等。论文《艾滋病中医论治探析》登载《中国性病艾滋病》2003版杂志,发明的艾滋病治疗新药康生丹自2002年临床应用至今疗效显著,现有中国唯一艾滋病新药3代…
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