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凯特丽 摘录自 天天军事网 | 评论() 2011-09-30 13:46 [收藏]




  China istaking a stepped approach to the development of its human spaceflight programme


  China isdue to launch its first space laboratory, Tiangong-1.


  The 10.5m-long, cylindrical module will be unmanned forthe time being, but the country's astronauts, or yuhangyuans, are expected tovisit it next year.


  Tiangong-1 will demonstrate the criticaltechnologies needed by Chinato build a fully fledged space station - something it has promised to do at theend of the decade.


  The space lab is set to ride to orbit atopa Long March 2F rocket.


  State media say the lift-off from theJiuquan Satellite Launch Centre in the Gobi Desert is likely to occur between21:16 and 21:31 local time (13:16-13:31 GMT). Meteorologists report thatweather conditions should be good.


  The Long March will put Tiangong in anear-circular path around the Earth, just a few hundred km above the surface.


  It will operate in an autonomous mode,monitored from the ground. Then, in a few weeks' time, China will launch another unmannedspacecraft, Shenzhou 8, and try to link the pair together.


  This rendezvous and docking capability is aprerequisite if larger structures are ever to be assembled in orbit.


  Commentators say Russian technology, or aclose copy of it, will be used to bring the two craft into line.


  Assuming the venture goes well, two mannedmissions (Shenzhou 9 and 10) should follow in 2012. The yuhangyuans - two orthree at a time - are expected to live aboard the conjoined vehicles for up totwo weeks.


  ·Tiangong-1will launch on the latest version of a Long March 2F rocket

  ·The lab willgo into a 300-400km-highorbit and will be untended initially

  ·An unmannedShenzhou vehicle will later try to dock with Tiangong

  ·The orbitinglab will test key technologies such as life-support systems

  ·China'sstated aim is to build a 60-tonne space station by about 2020






  Tiangong means "heavenly palace"in Chinese. The programme is the second step in what Beijing authorities describe as a three-stepstrategy. The first step was the development of the Shenzhou capsule systemwhich has so far permitted six nationals to go into orbit since 2003; then thetechnologies needed for spacewalking and docking, now in progress; and finallyconstruction of the space station.


  China's space station At about 60 tonnes inmass, this future station would be considerably smaller than the 400-tonneinternational platform operated by the US, Russia, Europe, Canada and Japan,but its mere presence in the sky would nonetheless represent a remarkableachievement.


  Concept drawings describe a core moduleweighing some 20-22 tonnes, flanked by two slightly smaller laboratory vessels.


  Officials say it would be supplied byfreighters in exactly the same way that robotic cargo ships keep theInternational Space Station (ISS) today stocked with fuel, food, water, air,and spare parts.


  There has been much talk about Chinabecoming involved in the ISS project itself, and the fact that it has adoptedmany Russian engineering standards would certainly make it technically possiblefor Shenzhou vehicles to visit the orbiting complex.


  Europe, too, has argued that additional partners could help spread thecost of running what is an extremely expensive endeavour. But political differencesbetween China and the USwould appear to make such involvement unlikely inthe near-term.


  Five astronauts, or yuhangyuans, havefollowed Yang Liwei's historic first flight in 2003"


  "These are decisions that have to betaken by the whole ISS partnership; everyone has to agree," says KarlBergquist from the European Space Agency's (Esa) international relationsdepartment.


  You also have to see whether it issomething which would interest a country like China, given their ambitions inspace. They have advanced so far in their plans that they will probably goahead and develop their own station," he told BBC News.


  Thomas Reiter, the director of humanspaceflight at Esa, was asked to comment on the status of China's space programme during aseminar this month at the London School of Economics.


  "I think the Chinese want to prove tothemselves and others that they are on a level," he said. "At thatpoint, it becomes a moment for discussion on greater co-operation. We arecertainly drifting towards each other."


  The director said he could envisage the daywhen yuhangyuans made visits to European astronaut training facilities.


  Currently, most of Europe's engagement withChinafalls in the area of space science.


  Esa participated in the Double Starmission, a pair of satellites sent into orbit to study the Sun's interactionwith the Earth's magnetic field.

  欧洲宇航局参与的‘双星计划’是将两颗卫星送到轨道上来研究太阳和地球磁场之间的相互作用。 (译者注:双星计划是第一个由我国提出的空间探测国际合作计划,该项目由中国航天局与欧洲空间局于2001年启动,旨在了解地球的磁层变化,以及影响地球发生大磁暴的因素等。)

  There is also co-operative work in Earthobservation, assisting the Chinese with the development of applications tointerpret satellite data.


  In the UK,manufacturer Surrey Satellite Technology Limited announced recently that itwould be making three high-resolution imaging spacecraft for the purpose ofmapping China.


  The ISS is very expensive, but all partnerswould need to agree to China'sparticipation




  Trillions in reserve, 90% of the countryliving in squalor the other 10% corrupt, brutally occupying Tibet and XinJiangwhilst scuppering the Global Economy by suppressing the value of the Yuan. Yes,China has a space programwith technology taken from Russia(among other places) but it won't be for reasons of scientific progress butinternational prestige. I hope it pops!



  The long term future of Mankind lies withthe exploration and eventual colonisation of space. There are more immediatespin offs from scientific advancements arising from space research.

  Any country not investing a major portionof its science research budget on space exploration may find itself regrettingthe short term thinking decisions in a few decades.



  so this is where all our chineese aid moneyhas end up



  Reference Post 1 - I have to agree withthis comment. The question of cyber attacks from China on western interests mustalso not be forgotten. I trust the Chinese as much as I trust Putin's Russiangovernment

  Having said that, Space Research isimportant and I feel ashamed that the UK does not participate in thisnecessary part of Human development as much as it should.




  Good luck to China :)



  Significant space advances always takeplace under or as a result of oppressive regimes. Stalin's Soviet union   inspired the race to the Moon, with the American expertiseimported from Nazi Germany. Less oppressive regimes would rather feed people,or possibly fight wars in foreign lands.



  bit like India with their space programme? millionsof their populations lack fresh water/food/decent homes and they waste money ona space programme



  China, Indiaand others are the future. We had our chance and blew it. China has grown remarkably frompost colonial poverty to the worlds richest nation and we should be decentenough to respect their efforts. All emerging economies have inequalities whichwill doubtless be resolved in time, let's just be glad someone is stillexploring space at all.



  if Chinaand Indiaare the future then god help the rest of us! they don't have one iota ofinnovation between them - they just copy the development of others often usinginferior materials/technology. and i have first hand experience ofmanufacturing in both countries!!



  I do wish countries would get cheaperhobbies, and spend their surplus cash on improving lives of their people on theground.



  GDP per capita in China is not the highest in theWorld it actually ranks 91st! The UK ranks 22nd which is high for anon oil or natural resource rich Country. Average incomes in the UK are 5 times that of China


  12、Aziz Merchant

  Majority of scientists at NASA are Asiansthat include Chinese and Indians. Both Chinese and Indians are endowed withintelligence and a spirit of research. Unfortunately, Indian scientists onlyfind appreciation and reward abroad. China has covered a long distanceand have surprised major nations through its innovations and scientificreseach. Chinawill succeed in setting up manned space station


  13、nosotros somos el futuro

  china may well have stolen their tech butis that not true for the foundations of the american space programme. if theyhadn't have taken all those nazi scientists to the states would americahave gotten to the moon when they did?



  This is a great point, they both have spaceprogrammes that are basically a power trip rather than science but yet the UK gives india (for example) £280m a year in aid. How much of this getsto the people???



  if Chinaand Indiaare so full of 'innovation' would it not be the decent thing to help their ownpopulation out of abject poverty?



  thats because man never went to the moon.If she did why hasn't she ever gone back?



  Good luck to China, if they want to do it, Onlychinese people should have say on this to go or not to go for space. Everyoneelse can have own opinions. If you have strong economy, you can afford suchmissions! At the end of the day, What China has achieved in last decade andhalf is enough to leap frog!


  18、The Realist

  I have to laugh at comments 1 and 4. Theybasically described what is also happening in our own Western World. Comment 1- changing the numbers to suit your aim. Bad touch. Comment 4 - We do thatourselves, are we exempt from morality in your point of view? China is goingto space. Deal with it.



  they don't have one iota of innovationbetween them - they just copy the development of others often using inferiormaterials/technology.


  I've spent 20 years working with US basedtechnology developers in and around the Internet. China'stechnology might have it's origins in a copy/price mentality, but today itsinnovation more than matches that of the US.


  20、Davey K

  I hear people say "They spend all thismoney on space, but what about the poor ?", but the money doesn'tphysically get flown into space and disappear. It goes to the workers who makethe parts or supply the services etc. They pay tax and buy things (they give itto other people)



  As much as I love to see people going backto space (it beats endless consumerism), and as much as I hate to waffle,but.... why are we giving money to the likes of India in foreign aid when theyblow money on space programs?

  Why not keep the money and make out ownspace program, and create skilled jobs for British workers in the process. Thenwe can see the union   flag flying on the moon!




  I'm all for going into space, and morecountries doing so, but if they all continuing adding to the junk up thereit'll be off limits to all. We need to start cleaning up our orbital dumpingground.



  Well I find this very exciting! Two spacestations! I can't pretend to know what each country gets from their spacescience experiments but I'm pretty sure it's much more than just an ego trip assuggested by some comments.


  24、Martyn Norman

  It's nice to see China doing something productivewith our money, rather than loaning it back to us.... Human space flight shouldnot be limited to two nations....Good luck to them....


  25、Perpetual Sigh

  Space exploration should not be aninternational pissing contest. This is something that all of the world'sleading nations should be working together on to ensure the long-term survival(or, at the very least, short-term understanding) of our species. China, India,the US, Russia and the UK should band together and makethis happen between them.



  Let the Chinese join the ISS. We won't begiving them any tech or secrets. Everyone would benefit from the extraresources, including a second way to get crew to the station.

  That won't happen because of paranoid US politicians.They forget that we spend so much on the military we could still slap the youknow what out of the Chinese if they attacked us. They might buy us, but notattack us.




  Without freedom to conduct research andgive open and honest opinions Chinawill not be a leader is space technology. The current climate in China stiflesinovation and any research which disagrees with the government. China hasn'tachieved any new technological goals or scientific knowledge and are unlikelyto until their people have the freedom to act and think for themselves.



  well done China. Perhaps India should stop competing with USA and start to compete with China. By theway, anyone who says stop giving Aid to India,please remember the fact Indiahas donated $2 billion as a bail out plan to EU in July.



  This is a true pioneering spirit from theChinese and is exactly the kind of endeavour that the human race should bepursuing. Let's hope the US,Russia, Europe and Chinacan work out a way of co-operating on this important endeavour. We are alllooking forward to the International Moon Base!


  30、Jack Napier

  Can't wait to see what happens if/when China claimsownership of the Moon & Mars...



  Americais so committed to space exploration because once they've destroyed this planetand all its inhabitants, they'll move elsewhere and start the process anew.



  In these days of soulless accountants atthe top, the world of science is no longer about human curiosity as it has tobe budgetary approved by a know-nothing money man.

  Good for China. I hope they discoversomething utterly fantastic, thus proving what we all know: the bankers andaccountants who tell us it's only money that makes the world go round arearrogant, ignorant and short-sighted.




  Having just returned from a regular 5 daybusiness trip to Beijing and Xi'anI have absolutely no doubt that Chinawill have a man on the moon in the next 10 years. Xi'an is growing at a huge rate and becoiningthe centre of aerospace and space technology. China are quite simply paying

  top dollar and buying in the skills andtechnology they need.



  Excellent news - I hope all goes well forthis launch. I look forward to more international collaboration between space-faringnations as time goes on. We need to work together here, not get into theridiculous cold war era 'willy waving' of a new space race.



  This will rub salt into the wounds of NASA.Chinahave the cash, the political will, and don't have to abide by all the samesafety rules the rest of world run by. Space is there's to claim, and lookingat the long term resource shortage on earth, I can see why they want in....



  This is very good news. With Russiain decline we need another country that can take on the american imperialists.



  Americawill lose its crown as the worlds most technological state. In the fifties theyinvested billions in science and technology and crucially pushed science to thetop of the educational agenda. With 40% of Americans now believing the earth isless than seven thousand years old it does not seem a fertile place for newscientists and technologists to emerge. Problems Chinaand Indiadon't have.



  Great news! After all these years with USkeeping China out of ISSproject, it's time to show the world what China can achieve in the space.



  The problem is they have a space program.If you have a space program, you have the money to bring some people out ofpoverty. Kinda like driving up to the Job Centre in your Ferrari...



  It will be nice if China can landa man on the moon. It will be more fun to find out the first moon landing isnot a hoax.



  Per capita GDP is still ridiculously low inChina...afact that people seldom acknowledge.


  42、harsh vardhan

  This comment was removed because themoderators found it broke the house rules.



  I hope that the chinese learn from NASA'smistakes and avoid the pitfalls of space. The simple fact is that the Humanrace will need to eventually leave planet earth, and without far sighted andambitious plans for space we as a species are doomed. America has done its bit, and takenus to the moon, now its up to other nations to carry us to the stars...



  Why don't the UK have a space program. Somethinglike that would create jobs, a sense of national pride and give young peoplesomething to aspire to. Instead all we have is a financial sector which doesnothing but rape the public purse for bailouts, a national debt of obsceneamounts and world wide reputation in the gutter. Our "government" isa joke.



  Firstly, it is quite commendable that thetwo countries that were oppressed about 60 years back have come up with theirown space programs and secondly, poverty is not such a bad thing as the westmakes it out to be. The poor are working hard and trying to come out of povertyin these countries. Indiaand Chinaare investing in education rather than splurging out "benefits" tothe poor.



  Splendid. Humanity needs a new bold peopleto take up the baton. I do wish we had a government with more spine here in theUK.



  The Chinese government don't care about thepeople's lives or human rights, why should you care? I only hope they really dosome constructive scientific works up there, not just giving us fake results,or just spreading the word "made in China" to everywhere even inthe Space. And also hope that the space station will be perfectly functional,otherwise will be falling back onto somebody's home


  47、harsh vardhan

  india and china space program are muchcheaper then western, india s moon mission was just 356million, ie less then B2bomber,, Moreover if having unemployment is reason for shutting down spaceprogram ,then USA should shut NASA n europe ESA,, as they are under more than14tr deb



  The first countries to put people in Spacewere USSR, then USA, then China. The message is simple. Ifyou focus on education and promoting an equal society you can achievegreatness. If you focus on shopping, celebrity worship, reality-tv, gangculture & delusional nationalism you will achieve nothing. Manycongratulations to China.The World`s number 1 super-power, elect.



  Here many listed China and Indiatogether..........but what's the progress of India's space program.....theyhave already achieved nothing..........China have never copied UK'stechnology.....because Uk has no ability to send his people and spaceship intothe sky by itself,,,,,if you say China have copied USA or Russia,,,,maybepossible....but remember these technologies are extremely secret ...



  The Chinese take the long view, they arebuilding an ocean-going navy ,why not, their overseas trade is increasing as istheir imports of raw materials, they need to be able to protect their traderoutes. A space program is another national symbol, telling the world, they areon the way up. The private sector is producing wealth, overall control remainswith the Party.



  The technology for space programme camefrom USSR and Germany. The USA got theirrocket technology from Nazi Germany,. the USSR already had great scientistsand were ahead of the game. That`s why they were the first into space. OnlyPresident Kennedy`s resolution to catch up meant that USA put first man on themoon. The UKdoes not have the resources for a space programme, only, sadly, for wars



  There is a kneejerk reaction in the west toview China'sspace program as a threat to western hegemony of the near beyond. Lost is thefact that space exploration is not the exclusive right of NASA or the EuropeanSpace Agency it is the right of all humankind. Militarists are alarmed as theirparanoid genetics dictate. I for one welcome a diversification in this area ofhuman endeavor. Why not?



  The key question is what China, India,US, Japan,ESA and others are doing with space-based solar power (SSP). SSP is a game changer.Huge amounts of money will be made and SSP will become a foundation forcommercial development and space industrialization. Kudos to China for itsremarkable achievements in space! Let's hope that these achievements inspirethe rest of the world to do more.



  Did I hear stop aid to china or indiabecause of their spending on space programs when millions of their people arepoor? What aid are the ukand usa giving to india or china?Do chinese and indians depend on any british or american aid? Don't the usa and uk have homeless while launchingspacecraft?



  Looks like a clean launch. Fingers crossedthat it is in the correct orbit


  56、slag offJaker

  If it's anything like their new high speedrail system; it'll crack up within a month. Also, the next time they aresending a rocket/satellite into space they should send most everything"Made in China"with it, then we'd be a lot safer down here.



  A bit of competition can't hurt. Just lookat what we achieved during the cold war. It would be nice if all the wold couldwork together on this one, but the reality is that progress is sufferingbecause of our unhealthy, consumption centered economic system. I welcome thisChinese endeavor and wish them the best of luck. I also hope this will sparkrenewed interests from our governments.



  Well done China. Watch out America, a redflag with a star on it may be on Mars first.



  We cut aid to China specifically because theirexpanding space programme provided evidence that they could no longer beconsidered a poor country. Could we do the same to India please?